What Is a Spot ETF?

Zac McClure
ByZac McClure, MBAReviewed byAlex MilesUpdated on June 26, 2024 · minute read
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  • Spot ETFs provide direct exposure to the real-time price of assets like Bitcoin and Ethereum, offering a simplified, regulated investment avenue for both casual and seasoned investors.

  • While offering ease of entry and potential tax benefits, spot ETFs also carry risks tied to the volatility of the underlying cryptocurrencies and regulatory changes.

Spot ETFs offer investors direct exposure assets like Bitcoin and Ethereum, offering a simplified, regulated investment vehicle. The accessibility provided by spot ETFs democratizes investment in otherwise complex or inaccessible assets. For instance, investors interested in cryptocurrencies can gain exposure to Bitcoin’s or Ethereum’s price movements without managing digital wallets or understanding blockchain technology deeply, streamlining the investment process significantly.

On May 23rd, 2024, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) gave a significant nod to the cryptocurrency market by approving eight applications for spot Ethereum (ETH) ETFs. These ETFs, slated to be listed on major U.S. exchanges like Nasdaq, CBOE, and NYSE, represent a pivotal shift in the regulatory landscape, potentially paving the way for trading later this year after final approvals are secured.

A spot Ethereum ETF is designed to track the market price of ETH directly. This direct exposure offers investors a simpler, regulated way to integrate Ethereum into their portfolios without the complexities of direct cryptocurrency ownership. The approval could enhance liquidity, broaden market participation, and bolster the legitimacy of Ethereum as a financial instrument.

This regulatory milestone has sparked discussions about the broader implications for the crypto market, possibly setting a precedent for future approvals of other cryptocurrency ETFs. As the regulatory landscape continues to evolve, the introduction of Ether ETFs marks a significant moment in the mainstream acceptance and integration of cryptocurrencies into the regulated financial system.

How does spot ETF work?

Spot ETFs operate by purchasing the assets they aim to track and then issuing shares to investors representing ownership of these assets. The value of these shares fluctuates based on the real-time market price of the underlying assets, allowing investors to trade them on traditional stock exchanges.

This mechanism simplifies access to commodities like gold or volatile assets like cryptocurrencies, making them accessible through conventional investment accounts.

Spot ETFs vs. futures ETFs

Spot ETFs and futures ETFs serve different investor needs despite both aiming to provide exposure to the same assets. Spot ETFs hold the actual assets, which aligns the ETF's value closely with the asset's real-time price. This direct holding reduces the slippage and tracking errors commonly associated with derivatives-based investments like futures ETFs, which rely on contracts speculating on future prices of the assets.

Futures ETFs, while offering potential benefits during volatile market conditions or when direct asset holding is not feasible, come with increased complexity and risk. These ETFs may not suit investors looking for a straightforward investment or those concerned with the intricacies of futures contracts and their expiration dates, margin requirements, and rollover costs.

Investing in Ethereum

Investing in Ethereum through a spot ETF simplifies entry into the cryptocurrency market by eliminating the need for direct purchase, custody, and security of digital assets. This approach is particularly beneficial for investors familiar with traditional investments but new to the complexities of cryptocurrencies. Spot ETFs allow them to buy shares through regular brokerage accounts, providing exposure to Ethereum's price movements without the associated operational risks.

Ethereum's potential as a leading platform for decentralized applications and smart contracts adds an attractive layer of utility and value growth prospects, making it a compelling investment. Spot Ethereum ETFs capitalize on this by offering a product that reflects Ethereum's current market value, making it a relevant and timely investment choice.

How Ethereum works

Ethereum is more than just a cryptocurrency. It’s a comprehensive platform for decentralized applications and smart contracts. These programs run on its blockchain, offering a variety of functions from decentralized finance to digital art without the need for intermediaries like traditional banks or legal systems. Ethereum's native token, Ether, is used to pay for transactions and services on the network, anchoring its intrinsic value to the utility it provides.

The decentralized nature of ETH ensures that it operates continuously without downtime, fraud, or interference, which is a significant advantage over traditional centralized systems. This resilience and flexibility make Ethereum an essential player in the digital economy, driving interest and value in its ecosystem.

Ethereum vs. Bitcoin

Ethereum and Bitcoin are pioneering crypto projects that serve unique purposes based on different technical foundations. Bitcoin, designed as a digital alternative to traditional currencies, offers a decentralized medium of exchange and store of value. Its straightforward purpose contrasts with Ethereum’s broader ambition to serve as a platform for decentralized applications and smart contracts, which require Ethereum for execution.

This fundamental difference shapes the investment and technological landscape for both cryptocurrencies. While Bitcoin aims to revolutionize how we think about money, Ethereum seeks to change how we use the internet and conduct business, providing a broader range of investment and technological opportunities.

Learn more about Bitcoin vs. Ethereum in our comprehensive article.

How spot Ethereum ETFs would work

A spot Ethereum ETF would function similarly to its Bitcoin counterpart by purchasing and holding Ethereum directly. This direct investment approach allows the ETF to reflect Ethereum's real-time value, providing a transparent investment vehicle for those interested in its market dynamics. The shares issued by the ETF would be traded on stock exchanges, enabling investors to buy into Ethereum without the complexities of crypto wallets and exchanges.

Such ETFs would likely attract diverse investors, from individuals looking for simple exposure to Ethereum's price movements to institutional investors seeking regulated and liquid investment options. The introduction of spot Ethereum ETFs could significantly impact Ethereum's liquidity and price stability by increasing the cryptocurrency's accessibility and appeal.

Spot Ethereum ETFs pros and cons


  • Simplified investment process without the need for technical knowledge of cryptocurrency handling.

  • Increased liquidity and potentially more stable prices due to broader market participation.

  • Staking. Learn more about Ethereum staking and how investors earn passive income with crypto.


  • Exposure to the high volatility of Ethereum's market price.

  • Regulatory risks as the cryptocurrency market remains under scrutiny and subject to changing regulations.

Investing in ETH directly vs. ETH ETFs and futures

Direct investment in Ethereum offers the highest level of control and potential returns but requires significant technical knowledge and management of security risks associated with cryptocurrency transactions. On the other hand, Ethereum ETFs provide a simpler and more secure investment option, though they may involve additional costs such as management fees and potentially lower returns due to expense ratios.

Futures on Ethereum offer speculative opportunities and can be used for hedging. However, they are complex financial instruments that require an understanding of detailed market mechanisms and carry the risk of significant losses. When choosing between these options, investors must carefully consider their investment objectives and risk tolerance.

Looking to calculate your Ethereum profit? Try our free Ethereum profit calculator.

Spot Ethereum ETFs outlook

The initial market reaction to the May 2024 SEC announcement was mixed. Despite a significant influx of $69 million into Ether investment products and substantial withdrawals from crypto exchanges, Ether's price experienced minimal movement, suggesting that the market had already anticipated the approval. This development, closely following the SEC's previous approvals of spot Bitcoin ETFs, underscores a more accommodating regulatory stance towards cryptocurrencies.

The ETF approval process is not without its challenges. Each ETF must still navigate the SEC's rigorous review process, which involves multiple steps and detailed disclosures before it can officially launch. This careful scrutiny ensures investor protection and compliance with financial regulations.

The potential impact of Ethereum ETFs on the market is considerable. Analysts are cautious, noting that while the approval is a positive step, the actual market response may vary due to differences between Bitcoin and Ethereum dynamics. Nevertheless, the introduction of Ether ETFs is expected to attract significant investment, potentially leading to a "supply shock" that could elevate Ether prices.

Tax implications for Bitcoin spot ETF

The tax implications of investing in a Bitcoin spot ETF differ from those of direct cryptocurrency investments. Spot ETFs are treated as securities and thus subject to established regulations and tax treatments, which can simplify compliance for investors. However, they also involve considerations for capital gains, dividends, or interest income, depending on the investor's jurisdiction and the specific structure of the ETF.

Understanding the tax implications is crucial for making informed investment decisions, especially in a rapidly evolving financial landscape like that of cryptocurrencies. Investors should consult with financial and crypto tax advisors to navigate these complexities effectively.

Schedule a FREE crypto tax consultation


Here are answers to frequently asked questions about Bitcoin spot ETF, spot Bitcoin ETF, what is a spot Bitcoin ETF, and what is a spot ETF generally?

How would a spot Ethereum ETF affect the ETH markets?

A spot Ethereum ETF could significantly influence Ethereum's markets by increasing the asset's visibility and accessibility, potentially leading to higher liquidity and more stable prices. This mainstream integration could attract large-scale institutional investments, altering the market dynamics and possibly leading to greater overall market maturity.

Would spot Ethereum ETFs pay dividends?

Typically, spot Ethereum ETFs would not pay dividends because the underlying asset, Ethereum, does not produce income. Instead, the investment value in these ETFs comes from the potential price appreciation of Ethereum itself, reflecting its market dynamics rather than income generation.

How to buy spot Bitcoin ETF

Buying a spot Bitcoin ETF is as straightforward as purchasing any other stock or ETF through a brokerage account. Investors can search for the ETF by its ticker symbol and trade it during market hours, providing a familiar and accessible way to invest in Bitcoin without direct interaction with the cryptocurrency market.

How does spot make money?

Spot ETFs primarily generate revenue through management fees charged to investors. These fees cover costs to manage the ETF, including securing the underlying assets, administrative expenses, and operational costs. While these fees can reduce the net return to investors, they also facilitate a hassle-free investment in assets that might otherwise be too complex or risky to handle directly.

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Zac McClure
Zac McClureCo-Founder & CEO at TokenTax
Zac co-founded TokenTax after his career in international finance and accounting at JPMorgan, Imprint Capital and Bain. He has worked in more than half-dozen countries and received his MBA from the UPenn Wharton School.
Alex Miles
Reviewed byAlex MilesCo-Founder at TokenTax
Prior to TokenTax, Alex worked as a Product Designer at Dropbox and before that Readmill (acquired by Dropbox). He holds a BS in Digital Information Design - Interactive Media from Winthrop University.

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